Immigrants’ spatial incorporation in housing and neighbourhoods: Evidence from France

By Haley McAvay

Using the French Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey, this article investigates the housing and neighbourhood outcomes of immigrants and their descendants across five major national origins. Drawing on classic theories of immigrants’ spatial incorporation, we explore the factors contributing to housing tenure disparities between immigrants and the French mainstream population. Simultaneous equations models are also used to document the different ways in which housing and neighbourhood outcomes intertwine across groups. While signs of assimilation into homeownership are found based on length of stay and generation, public housing occupancy is strongly dependent on immigrant origin net of other factors. First and second generations of North African, sub-Saharan African and Turkish origin are substantially more likely to live in the sector than other groups. They also have a higher net probability of living in public housing in neighbourhoods with high shares of immigrants, pointing to spatial sorting of public housing residents based on origin.


  • immigrant spatial assimilation
  • homeownership
  • public housing
  • residential segregation
  • France
  • TeO survey
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